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The Equestris Legion was in the thick of the action when the Gallic Wars broke out. In fact, it was involved in pretty much every war Caesar declared upon his enemies.
It was the composure and bravery of the soldiers of the 10th Equestris Legion that brought about the defeat of the Helvetii tribes.
Because of victories on this front, the Romans were able to blockade any Helvetii moving into contemporary western France.
Legio Duodecima Fulminata, or simply the Thunderbolt 12th Legion, was a famous legion from the days of imperial Rome. The legion was enlisted by Caesar in 58 BC with his sights set on scoring a thumping victory in the Gallic Wars.
The 12th Fulminata had a thunderbolt as its emblem. Once the majority of conflicts were over and the legion had helped Caesar achieve an all-round victory in grabbing power over imperial Rome, the legionaries were pensioned off and given lands in Parma.
However, the legion must have been levied again sometimes later as this unit has been documented as guarding the crossing of the Euphrates River as late as the beginning of the fifth century.
The Cyrenaica Legion was active in different shapes and sizes from its formation in 31 BC all the way up to the early years of the fifth century.
From the Battle of Actium in 31 BC to one of the many Jewish revolts between and AD, the Cyrenaica Legion had an influential presence during many major events in ancient Roman history.
The name could also have been given to mark some of its notable achievements in that region. Regardless of the mystery shrouding its inception, Legio III Cyrenaica was definitely used by Emperor Augustus to maintain control over contemporary Egypt which he has annexed around 30 BC.
From then on, historians state that the legion was under the command of either Lepidus or Marc Antony, both being members of the Second Triumvirate.
The legion went on to stay in Egypt for more than a century and a half and became so adapted to Egyptian culture that many Cyrenaica legionaries started to worship the Egyptian god Ammon.
Many of the conservative Roman republicans had fled to Greece. The Legio IV got its first taste of action in the battles of Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus when Caesar scored a decisive victory over Pompey.
These were numbered I-IV. The number of men, organization and selection methods changed over time. The tenth X was Julius Caesar's famous legion.
It was also named Legio X Equestris. Later, when it was combined with soldiers from other legions, it became Legio X Gemina.
By the time of the first Roman emperor, Augustus , there were already 28 legions, most of which were commanded by a senatorial legate.
During the Imperial period, there was a core of 30 legions, according to military historian Adrian Goldsworthy. We're closed. Sorry we are closed Following the new Covid measures introduced by the Welsh Government, we are now closed until further notice.
Keep an eye on our website and social media for news on when we will reopen. Features Feature. Learning Activity. A large round ball at the end helped with the balance.
The primary use was for thrusting at short range. It was carried high on the right hand side so as to be clear of the legs and the shield arm.
The Roman javelin. It was seven feet long and very light, as it was thrown before just prior to engaging the enemy in melee, to disarm as much as wound them.
The top three feet were of iron with a hardened point. It is probable that more sturdy types of spear of the same name were available for defense against cavalry in formation such as the turtle.
The Roman dagger was anywhere from 7 to 11 inches long in similar width to the gladius. It could be highly decorative or very plain, but was a very useful secondary weapon in case of being disarmed.
It was attached to the belt on the left hand side. A centurion's equipment was notably different from that of a legionary. He wore a transverse, side to side, crest along his helmet that would serve as an easily recognized point of reference for the men.
The crest was made either of feathers or horsehair and colors could signify various ranks. Rather than the Lorica Segmentata of the Legionary, they would wear either chain or scale.
It was generally about waist length with a lower edge similar to the muscled cuirass. The armor and helmet could be silver-plated as well.
He did not wear the apron like the Legionary but had a double-pleated kilt like piece. They also wore a cloak, of fine material, which hung from the left shoulder and a very ornate belt.
Additionally the wearing of bronze greaves on the shins set them apart from the rank and file. They generally wore their swords on the left and daggers on the right, opposite of the common soldiers.
They carried a Vitis, vine staff, in his right hand as a symbol of his rank. It was made of grapevine and about 3 feet long.
Officers could, of course, dress very differently from anyone else and there seems to be set pattern to the styles. They did have very fine dyed cloaks of various colors to signify rank.
They generally wore a muscled cuirass and used a parazonium instead of a gladius; both described below.
The muscled cuirass was a bronze chest piece made in two pieces, one for the front and one for the back, and buckled together at the sides.
Centurions were the glue which held a Roman legion together. They were the full-time professional officers of the Roman army. The basic centurion commanded usually 83 men rather than They rose in rank by commanding ever more important centuries.
The very best centurions were promoted to become centurions in the First Cohort, called Primi Ordines , commanding one of its ten centuries and also taking on a staff role.
The most senior centurion of the legion was the Primus Pilus who commanded the first century. Only eight officers in a full legion outranked him.
They were:. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The cavalry of the Roman Republic: cavalry combat and elite reputations in the middle and late Republic.
New York, Routledge.Campaign history. However, this put the loyalty of the soldiers in the hands of their general rather than the State of Rome itself. He also created the Praetorian Guard along with a permanent navy where served the Slots Millionor freed slaves.